Individual Terrorism: Indicators of Lone Operators
Heide, E.J. van der
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In this thesis, the phenomenon of lone operator terrorism is analyzed. 'Lone wolves' such as Anders Behring Breyvik (Norway, 2011) and Tristan van der Vlis (The Netherlands, 2011) have shown that countries worldwide are faced with the threat of lone operator terrorism. This thesis aims to scientifically categorize cases of lone operator terrorism in order to provide a better understanding of this phenomenon and to improve counterterrorism measures. Forty cases of lone operator terrorism were selected using Rapoport's four waves theory. The thesis focuses on three dimensions: protagonist (the perpetrator), antagonist (the target) and crucial factors. By comparing and contrasting the forty lone operator terrorists, conclusions were drawn about the nature of lone operator terrorism.