Depressieve Symptomen en het Zelfbeeld in Slachtoffers bij Pesterijen: Gender en Immigratie.
MetadataShow full item record
Bullying is a worldwide problem. Many victims of bullying experience psychological complaints, such as depression and low self-esteem. However, the course of these complaints after bullying are unknown. The current study investigated the course of depressive symptoms and self-esteem in the two years after a child had been bullied. In addition, differences in gender and between westerners and non-westerners were examined. Data from a previous study with 1192 participants were used. We selected 237 participants between the age of 8 and 12 years at the first measurement (M = 10.2; SD = .5). The participants were given a questionnaire that the entire class completed at the same time. Subsequently, a personal interview took place. Positive, but opposed to expectations, depressive symptoms appeared to decrease and there was no more negative self-esteem over time. In addition, there was no difference in depressive symptoms over time between boys and girls. In accordance with expectations, girls appeared to have a lower self-esteem than boys during measurement moments 1 and 3. During measurement moment 2, self-esteem did not differ between gender. Furthermore, it appeared that non-westerners experienced more depressive symptoms than westerners during measurement moment 2, which was in line with expectations. During measurement moments 1 and 3, the self-esteem did not differ between westerners and non-westerners. Opposed to expectations, there appeared to be no difference in self-esteem between non-westerners and westerners. Current study knows some limitations, for example that is was not included in the analyses whether or not de children were bullied during measurements 2 and 3. When future research studies would include this, a more evident image could be given on the course of symptoms within a certain victim group. Current research is the first study to the development of symptoms by bullying, more elaborate research is necessary for detailed results.