The role of interconnection and storage for the integration of renewable energy in the Netherlands
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The urge in the European Union to become less reliant on fossil fuel for its energy provision becomes in- creasingly important. Global warming and self sufficiency are key drivers for the Netherlands to deploy large numbers of variable renewable energy sources. However, integrating these variable energy sources in the existing energy system poses complex challenges, and requires a change of thinking in how energy is trans- ported and used in time. Amongst the expansion of the electricity grid, alternative energy carriers including hydrogen are widely being considered. Linking electricity with hydrogen production impacts several aspects of the power system, including curtailment of renewable generation and electricity prices. Using a linear optimal energy system model that allows for integrated expansion, the role of interconnection and storage for the integration of renewable energy in the Netherlands is assessed. The expansion of interconnection of electricity and hydrogen transmission develops from 2030 onward. Hydrogen storage enables for long term energy storage, but the degree of hydrogen storage for the integration of renewables, and in particular offshore wind, is strongly dependent on geographical location and rate of electrification of demand.