The contrasts of urban parks A first evaluation: In and beyond public green space
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More frequently public green spaces, such as urban parks, are being developed in urban areas to provide beneficial accessibility to nature for all residents as public green spaces have several environ-mental, economic, health, and social advantages. However, previous research showed many examples of exclusive green spaces. This case study research has examined the recently opened public park Luchtpark Hofbogen in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, to answer firstly, the question if the local community is involved during the development of this park, and secondly how the park is used and experienced by different people. In order to provide an overall conclusion about and recommendations for the Luchtpark Hofbogen both interviews with stakeholders, and a residential online survey were conducted in a zone of 300 metres around the park in the period between March to August 2019. The participation of residents is found to be limited to only some informative involvement and current maintenance, due to a long-term and opaque development process, and minimal interest of residents in the park. Meanwhile, interviews show that the park is increasingly used by a wide public. Nevertheless, only half of the various group of respondents uses the park once in a while. Whenever respondents do not visit the park this is mainly as consequence of personal preferences, in turn exclusive barriers are scarce. Exclusion of specific adjacent residents seems to be no current problem prior to the expansion of the Luchtpark Hofbogen.