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Worldwide companion animals are being bred and traded. The line between legal and illegal breed and trade is a thin line. Breeders and traders act illegal when a license is missing, when the certificates of vaccination are inaccurate or forged, when they do not meet the requirements of the European law concerning transport of living animals, or when the welfare of the animals is not to a certain standard. Especially this last point gives room for interpretation. Unfortunately there are no European laws concerning the welfare of animals in each Member State. This means that each country has its own legislation, or worse, no legislation at all. In this research the definition of illegal dog trade will become clear, as well as the trade of dogs within the European Union. There are several negative consequences of this illegal dog trade; not just in the field of the health, welfare and behavior of the dogs, but also for the consumer. Unfortunately, the European Commission has no legal base yet to act upon the field of animal welfare.