Differences in estimation skills between children with and without mathematical problems: An eye-tracking study
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The effect of mathematical problems on representations (logarithmic and linear) and strategies (percentage of gazes to the begin-, mid- and endpoint of the number line) was studied. Method: Twelve children with mathematical problems and fifteen children without mathematical problems (age 9-12) participated in this study. They performed two Number-to-Position tasks ranging from 0-100 and 0-1000. Results: Children without mathematical problems had a more linear and logarithmic representation than children with mathematical problems. Besides, children without mathematical problems used the begin- and endpoint strategy more than children with mathematical problems, while those children used the midpoint strategy more. In children with mathematical problems, representations and strategies were not related to each other. In children without mathematical problems they were only related in the 0-100 task. In the 0-1000 task, this relation was not present. Discussion: Results and recommendations for future research are discussed. This study provides a useful starting point for future studies on differences in estimation skills between children with and without mathematical problems, but more research is needed to clarify differences in estimation skills.