The effect of model selection on learning and motivation when learning with video modeling examples.
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In the educational field, the use of video modeling examples, in which a model demonstrates and explains a task, has increased in the past few years. The observer-similarity hypothesis (MOS) argues that the effectiveness of modeling on self-efficacy and learning depends on how the observer perceives the model to be similar to them. However, research into MOS shows mixed findings which may be due to the effect of the task-appropriateness hypothesis, the perceived fit between the task and the model. Because the perception of task-appropriateness of a model could differ among learners, model selection could play an important role in learning and motivation. Therefore, we investigated whether model selection would affect motivation and the effectiveness of video modeling examples for learning. In this study, participants (N = 73) watched two video modeling examples about troubleshooting electrical circuits. Half of the participants were allowed to choose a model while the other half was randomly assigned to one of the models. Results suggests that there is no need to take model selection into account when learning with video modeling examples. No effects were found for model selection on learning, motivation, invested mental effort and explanation quality of the models.