De relatie tussen opvoeding en de sociaal-emotionele ontwikkeling van jongens en meisjes
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The purpose of this study was to examine if there is a relation between parenting and the child’s social-emotional development and whether this relationship differed for boys and girls. Specifically, the parenting qualities structure and stimulation were examined. Participants included 617 parents with a child between 0-4 years old. Families were selected through day-care and kindergarten of their child. Furthermore, students of the Pedagogical Sciences study at Utrecht University approached parents in their network to participate in the study. The participants received a questionnaire at home. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire independently. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional has been used to measure the social-emotional development. The Comprehensive Early Childhood Parenting Questionnaire measured parenting, including stimulation and structure. Findings revealed that mothers give more stimulation than fathers. Nevertheless, stimulation of both fathers and mothers did not appear to have a significant relationship with social-emotional development. Mothers give also more structure to their children than fathers. However, only the fathers’ structure is a significant predictor of the child’s social-emotional behaviour. Parents do not raise boys and girls differently, but the social-emotional development of boys and girls differs. No evidence has been found that the association between parenting and social-emotional development is moderated by the child’s sex.