Caenorhabditis elegans: an overview of milestones, genome manipulation techniques and perspectives for the future.
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C. elegans is a well studied animal model and allows researchers to study basic and complex biological processes in a relatively simple multi-cellular environment. However, until recently, researchers did not have the possibilities to create gene targeted knock outs with an efficient protocol. Here we review these recent genome modifying technical developments, as Mos1 random integration, EMS mutagenesis combined with Whole Genome Sequencing, Mos1-single copy integration, and Mos1-deletion. These developments are put in the perspective of the already achieved Nobel prize milestones, as RNAi, exogenous GFP expression, and cell lineage tracing. Moreover, we propose that completion of the two mutant databases, which are generated by both random Mos1 integrations and EMS random mutagenesis will open a valuable source of potential data. We state that combining these loss of function mutant libraries will enable performing research in a more conclusive manner in the upcoming decade.