Het Verschil tussen Vaders en Moeders in het Bieden van Warmte en Ondersteuning en de Invloed van de Kindkemerken Sekse en Temperament daarop
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Background: Parental warmth and support has been important for the attachment relationship between parent and child and for the development of the child. This current study is focused on the differences between fathers and mothers in warmth and support and the influence of gender and temperament of the child. Method: This study used 273 fathers and mothers with their children with an average age of 55.30 months (SD = 7.47, range: 36-66 months). Parental warmth and support is measured by the self-report questionnaire Comprehensive Early Childhood Parenting Questionnaire (Verhoeven, Deković, Bodden, & Van Baar, 2017) and the child’s temperament with the Children’s Behavioral Questionnaire (Rothbart, Ahadi, Hershey, & Fisher, 2001). Results: The results showed that mothers scored higher on warmth and support. Further, there were differences between sons and daughters. However, no significant interactions were found between parent and child gender, indicating that fathers and mothers did not differ in the degree of warmth and support to their sons and daughters. In addition, results showed that the relationship between the child’s temperament and the warmth and support for fathers and mothers was significant. However, there was no significant interaction between the child’s temperament and parental warmth and support by adding the moderator child gender. Conclusion: Implications of the study were the self-reporting questionnaires, the selective sample and the cross-sectional designs. The findings emphasize the importance of research on fathers and mothers in providing warmth and support and the influences of child characteristics on parental warmth and support.