Verdedigers, buitenstaanders en niet-betrokkenen in pestsituaties
Esch, S.D. van
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This study aimed to examine whether defenders (who actively defend the victim in bullying situation), outsiders (who are present, but do not intervene in bullying situation) and the control group (uninvolved children) differ in self-perceived social competence, self-esteem and peer perceived popularity. Both defenders and outsiders have anti-bullying attitudes but only the defenders act in bullying situations by standing up for the victim. It was expected that defenders have a higher self-perceived social competence, self-esteem and peer perceived popularity than outsiders and the control group in bullying situations. Furthermore it was also expected that outsiders have a lower self-perceived social competence, self-esteem and peer perceived popularity than defenders and the control group in bullying situations. In total 2413 pupils were investigated. A MANOVA with pair-wise comparison showed that outsiders have less self-perceived social competence than defenders and the control group. Defenders had less self-esteem than outsiders and the control group. An ANOVA showed that defenders have a higher peer-perceived popularity than outsiders and the control group. Outsiders have the lowest score on peer perceived popularity out of the three groups. Outsiders, defenders and non-involved children have anti-bullying attitude and could help victims. However only defenders do this. Attempts can be made to increase the group of defenders by offering anti-bullying programs to outsiders. This will make a valuable contribution in bullying situations. The more defenders, the less socially anxious and rejected the victims feel.