miRNAs in host–virus interactions
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A new class of gene expression regulators has been identified, the so called microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small RNA transcripts encoded in genomes of helminths, plants, insects, etc. In mammals, their involvement has been suggested in many cell processes and also in anti-viral defence. Viruses also encode miRNAs and these were shown to favour viral replication. This interaction will be subject of this review, discussing positive and negative aspects of both viral and host miRNAs in regard to virus-host interaction.