Opvoeding en de sociaal-emotionele ontwikkeling van twee tot vier jarigen: moeders versus vaders
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This study examined the relationship between parenting behavior and toddlers’ social-emotional development and whether this relationship is different for mothers and fathers. The participants were 381 mothers and 381 fathers of children aged between 20 – 48 months (M = 32.89, SD = 7.57). Both parents individually completed the Comprehensive Early Childhood Parenting Questionnaire (CECPAQ) to measure parental warmth and negative discipline. In addition, both mothers and fathers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE-2) to assess the social-emotional development of their child. The results indicated that mothers give more warmth to their children than fathers. Regarding negative discipline there were no significant differences between mothers and fathers. Overall the results showed mothers and fathers apply low levels of negative discipline in their parenting behavior. Higher levels of maternal warmth and lower levels of maternal and paternal negative discipline coherent with higher levels of the social-emotional competences of the child. Which suggests that toddlers need maternal warmth more than paternal warmth for their social-emotional development. Though, fathers fulfill a different role in parenting compared to mothers. These results emphasize the importance of paternal parenting behavior in future studies and interventions.