El Alto's Housing: Current Trends, Policies and Interventions in Zona 16 de Julio
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Housing is an important part of the development of El Alto. Housing projects have been carried out by the Bolivian government and by NGOs. In Zona 16 de Julio, directly north of the airport, a neighbourhood upgrading project was carried out in the 1980s. Following this project, a longitudinal research was started up by the University of Utrecht, which monitored the situation of the area every five years by carrying out a survey. As part of this research, a survey was held in 2010 concerning housing, mobility, and home-based economic activities. The former two are the subject of this dissertation. The main research question is: What are current trends in the housing and residential mobility situation of Zona 16 de Julio, El Alto, and what current policies and interventions are employed to ameliorate the housing situation? Current trend in residential mobility is the switch from rural-urban mobility to intra-urban mobility, motives to move to the Zona, the special role tenure plays, and housing priorities. Housing conditions leave much to be desired. The five indicators UN Habitat has stated for shelter deprivation are at least partially met, meaning part of the Zona population is deprived of sufficient shelter. Many households wanting improvement cannot realise their wish, mainly because of poverty. Different public housing programmes have been installed and have ended because the poor could not be reached. As long as the informal market and incremental housing are not thoroughly incorporated in the policies, most Alteños will not be reached. Housing strategies of households are not based on formal policies, and often have nothing to do with them.