Cardiac Output measurements during Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Children with Congenital Complete Atrioventricular Block
Palm, S.L. de
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Congenital Complete Atrioventricular Block (CCAVB) is a rare disease with an estimated incidence of 1 in 15.000 to 20.000 live births. To obtain objective information about the physical capacity of these CCAVB patients, cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET) are done. During CPET different parameters are measured using the respiratory gas exchange analysis. CPET is also combined with cardiac output measurement techniques such as, indirect Fick method, electrical bioimpedance and pulse contour analysis. But also new versions of these techniques have been produced. These cardiac output measurement techniques all have their advantages and disadvantages as shown in studies that used these techniques. Therefore, this thesis will review the use of these techniques by making use of electronic databases. The combination of these techniques with CCAVB will also be elucidated and their shortcomings will be discussed. In conclusion, the indirect Fick method and the pulse contour analyses are considered to be the best candidates for cardiac output measurements in pediatric CCAVB patients.