Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) Based on the P300 Event Related Potential (ERP)
Gonzalez Llinares, B.
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Research in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) ranges from applications for people with severe motor disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), to applications for the consumer market such as games. During the last decades significant progress has been achieved in this field. BCIs can be based on different techniques that measure brain activity, the most used of them being electroencephalography (EEG). In turn, different EEG signals can be used to control a device via a BCI system, including event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P300. This ERP is particularly interesting for BCI control because it allows to communicate attendance to a choice stimulus with practically no training required. Multimodal presentation enhances P300 amplitude and it is hypothesized to be one way to improve BCI efficiency as attentional capacity for processing concurrent stimuli is larger across sensory modalities than within a single modality. This review focuses on current P300-based BCIs, especially those which use multimodal stimuli. We also cover the differences between P300s elicited in different modalities, suggestions of other ERPs and brain oscillations which might contribute to improve such BCI, and an overview of the neurobiology of multimodal integration. Finally, possible applications of this type of system and proposals for future research are discussed.