Sialic acid as a receptor for viruses and bacterial toxins
Buuren, M.M. van
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In order to develop strategies to stop infections, detailed information is needed about the attachment and internalization of viruses. This review discusses viruses; SV40, Rota virus, Arenavirus and Influenza A virus, and the bacterial toxin; Cholera Toxin, which all are, or thought to be, dependent on sialic acids for infection of target cells. First general information on sialic acids and sialic acid containing structures as glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins is discussed. Subsequently, several endocytic routes are reviewed that can be employed by the virus to be internalized. Finally the different viruses and toxins are discussed with regard to their sialic acid dependency, attachment-, entry receptors and endocytic pathways. In the discussion more questions are raised that need to be answered to fully understand the matter of sialic acid dependent internalization of viruses. In the thesis there will be an emphasis on the Influenza A virus, because the impact that the virus has on society is huge.