De biestverstrekking en de passieve immuniteit van het kalf in de praktijk
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Newborn calves haven’t antibodies in their blood. They have to get immediately after birth colostrum of their mother with antibodies. If a calf has a low serum immunoglobulin concentration, there has been failure of passive transfer (FPT). Calves with FPT have an increased risk for sickness and dead. Several factors of colostrum management (determined by the farmer) are of influence on the serum immunoglobuline concentration. Therefore an adequate supply of colostrums is important for good passive immunity. Purpose of the study is to achieve a good and practical protocol for colostrums supply that gives under practice conditions a sufficiently high serum immunoglobulin concentration. This study is an inventory of the passive immunity of 148 calves on 30 different dairy farms. Blood was taken from the calves and serum total protein (TE) was determined using a refractometer. In addition, each dairy farmer completed a questionary about the colostrums supply and calves on his / her farm. In 16.9% of the calves, there was FPT. 83.3% of the dairy farmers separate the calf immediately after birth from their mother. When calves are born at daytime, there are 6 farmers who milk the cow the next regular milking time after parturition. After parturition at night there are 15 farmers who wait till regular milk time. Also, the time of first colostrum supply of calves born at night is later than calves born at daytime. The volume of colostrum first, second and third time given range from 1.0 L to 3.0 L or a stock of 8.0 L. 80% of the farmers give the calves three times colostrum during the first 12 hours, 20% three times. Based on the results of this study it is recommended that a calf get separated from their mother immediately after birth. The cow must be milked within 30 minutes for the first colostrum, which should be supplied immediately to the calf with a bottle or a teat bucket. Minimum 4,5 L and maximum 5,5 L colostrum should be given in the first 12 hours after birth.