INVESTIGATING SEX DIFFERENCES IN ADVERSE EVENTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICATIONS
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In this literature review, we researched differences in side effects experienced by men and women in response to cardiovascular drugs. First, we conducted a rigorous search for scientific articles, prioritising the most recent ones to ensure the findings were up-to-date. We examined studies investigating sex-based differences in how heart medications impacted patients, particularly concerning Adverse Events (AEs). To achieve this, they explored various proxies, such as effectiveness, actual AEs, and treatment changes, since comprehensive side effect data was often lacking. The main finding of our study was that women tend to experience side effects more frequently than men. However, it is challenging for researchers to establish this link definitively due to variations in data quality. Nonetheless, the valuable insights from this research will contribute significantly to future investigations focusing on sex differences in medication side effects. Effectiveness, including factors like mortality and hospitalisation, emerged as valuable proxies to study AEs when comprehensive side effect data is unavailable. This approach allowed researchers to gain valuable information on side effect incidence, even with limited data quality. Additionally, some studies explored predictors for AEs, focusing on medication effectiveness (e.g., reaching target blood pressure measurements). These studies emphasised the importance of considering sex differences when identifying medication side effects, as we found evident sex disparities in AEs related to cardiovascular drugs. The review also investigated spontaneous reporting, different drug classes, physiological predictors, and others, and this method provided essential insights into the incidence of side effects, especially for women and men who may experience different AEs from cardiovascular medications. In conclusion, this literature review has provided valuable insights into medication side effects related to cardiovascular health. We explored strategies and proxies to uncover crucial information on how AEs may differ between men and women. While data quality remains a challenge, this study's findings contribute significantly to future research efforts to understand and develop personalised treatment plans for both men and women. By acknowledging and addressing sex-based differences in medication side effects, we can take significant steps toward enhancing patient care and safety, ultimately improving health outcomes for all.