Enterovirus Replication Organelles; function, formation and the role of viral proteins
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Enteroviruses extensively manipulate cellular functions during infection. One of the most prominent changes is in membrane morphology. Enteroviral infection causes the formation of Replication Organelles (ROs) that increase viral replication. ROs are rearranged membranes with different properties to any cellular membranes and serve as platforms for assembly of replication complexes and new virions. Many cellular pathways are modulated by viral proteins to create an environment suited for viral replication. These include manipulation of intracellular trafficking and lipid metabolism. Lipid droplets also play a role in effective infection by shuttling lipids towards ROs. Late during infection autophagy plays a role in non-lytic release by wrapping ROs in more membranes and allowing for the egress of vesicles filled with virions. Finally, recent advances in cryo-Electron Tomography (cryo-ET) are discussed that can allow the study of viral replication in situ in previously unachievable detail.