The relationship between Thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) recurrence after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine treatment
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INTRODUCTION: Thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) are present in 10-25% of differentiated thyroid cancer patients (DTC) and can interfere with thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the presence of TgAb and recurrence and/or metastasis in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who received total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine treatment. METHODS: In this research we included 143 patients with DTC between the period of 2011-2021, who had undergone a total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy. The patients were stratified by Tg, TgAb (negative of positive) status and recurrence and/or metastasis for the follow. The Chi-squared T-test was used to determine an association between Tg or TgAb and DTC recurrence and/or metastasis and the multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for recurrence and/or metastasis. RESULTS: The results showed significant differences in characteristics between the observed groups in tumor type (P=0.026), the cumulative dose (P=0.004), the Tg 0months (P<.001) and the number of treatment (P=0.050). The Multivariate analysis showed that the thyroglobulin value before RAI treatment (Tg 0mnd) (P= 0.002; OR: 1.017; CI: 1.006 - 1.029) was the only independent predictor for recurrence and/or metastasis. CONCLUSION: The odds ratio out the multivariate analysis has shown that there is a 1.7% increased risk of recurrence and/or metastasis in the presence of Tg before the first radioactive treatment after a thyroidectomy. Thus deeming Image-forming techniques combined with serum thyroglobulin measurements the most sensitive methods for detecting recurrence and/or metastasis.