The association between cardiovascular health and ADHD in Dutch women: a cross-sectional study.
Beek, Linda ter
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Evidence suggests that adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at greater cardiovascular risk. However, past research has produced inconsistent results on the association between ADHD and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between ADHD and cardiovascular health in women who attended the cardiac outpatient clinic in Utrecht. Data were analyzed from electronic health records of 300 individuals aged 18 years and above who visited the clinic between May 2021 and May 2022. ADHD symptoms were assessed with the self-reported ultra-short questionnaire for ADHD. The primary outcome included the presence of atherosclerosis as measured by carotid ultrasonography. ADHD in women was not a significant predictor for atherosclerosis. We found significant association between ADHD and alcohol use, but no association was observed between ADHD and obesity, type 2 diabetes, smoking, and drug use. Our hypothesis that women with ADHD are more likely to develop coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) was not confirmed. No significant associations were found between ADHD and CVD (atherosclerosis and CMD) in women. Both ADHD and CVD are underdiagnosed and undertreated in women. This can lead to mental and physical health impairments. To protect women’s health, further research is required to better understand the relationship between ADHD, cardiovascular risk and CVD.