Governing MaaS; The governance of Mobility as a Service in the municipality of Amsterdam
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Mobility as a Service is increasingly referred to as a solution to mobility systems that are under pressure and reached their maximum capacity, and to face the mobility problems that are experienced. MaaS is namely believed to be a new mobility paradigm with which mobility systems should become more sustainable and efficient. This new paradigm causes fundamental shifts in how mobility is organised and used, and how cities function. A new governance model is then required to manage the mobility systems. In this research, therefore, the impact of MaaS on the governance of the mobility system of Amsterdam was examined. By using multiple qualitative research methods – document analysis, stakeholder workshops, and semi-structured interviews – the research questions have been empirically investigated. The outcomes demonstrate that Amsterdam has drawn up various goals to achieve with MaaS. The priority is to place users at the centre of the mobility organisation. But in addition, the municipality has established various social and policy objectives that it wants to achieve with MaaS to make the city more attractive and liveable. MaaS should herein be seen as a tool that facilitates the transition to a new mobility system, but MaaS cannot achieve all of these goals individually. Accordingly, MaaS introduces three new elements to the mobility organisation, which bring several governance implications. The socio-technical constellation is changing as new roles, tasks and responsibilities emerge, making the ecosystem severely complex. Collaboration between the actors is therefore of significant importance. This collaboration will however not emerge by itself. Next to this, data is the most valuable commodity in MaaS for both private and public actors. There is, however, a data asymmetry whereby the private actors possess the data but are unwilling to share this with public actors. Finally, MaaS changes the spatial arrangements since the physical infrastructures and the public space are inextricably connected to MaaS. Currently, however, MaaS and the spatial environment do not correspond, and a spatial mismatch exists. Additionally, there is an implication concerning legislation. The mobility organisation is currently namely compartmentalised, meaning that mobility cannot be approached integrally, which inhibits the development of MaaS. These new elements and their related implications, therefore, require a change in governance. In the Netherlands, a public-private governance model is applied, in which public and private actors jointly develop MaaS, wherein all actors have their own tasks and responsibilities. In the initial development phase, a heavier role is temporarily foreseen for the municipality of Amsterdam. By being more present at the start, the government can, as a facilitator, use its instruments to create the right circumstances for MaaS to develop by adapting current policies, drawing up frameworks for collaboration, making certain rules and agreements in concessions and permits, and creating digital infrastructures and promoting data sharing. In this way, the municipality can stimulate the development of MaaS and establish an open, healthy and transparent ecosystem and protect the social goals and public values.
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