Perseverance of the Integration Paradox: The effect of structural integration on (negative) experiences of immigrants in the Netherlands
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Abstract This study explores the effect of structural integration – determined by educational attainment – on (negative) experiences (such as discrimination, sense of belonging, feelings about hospitality and angriness due to the disadvantaged position of migrants) in the Netherlands, to shed light on the possible existence of an ‘integration paradox’ in the Netherlands. Using the framework of classical integration as well as the framework of relative deprivation, possible outcome expectations are predicted. Using the NIS2NL dataset, linear and logistic regressions are performed to test the effect of education on (negative) experiences. Next, mediation analyses are conducted to explain these findings. Structural integration is found to have a negative effect on sense of belonging and a positive effect on angriness due to the disadvantaged position, which suggest that there is evidence to confirm an integration paradox. The study however also finds that structural integration has a positive effect on feelings about hospitality, which suggests that there would not be an integration paradox at play. The study concludes that there is an integration paradox at play in the Netherlands, but that it is quite nuanced and only visible when studying certain immigrant experiences.