Carsharing, a solution for transport poverty: A research on the B2C carsharing market in the four largest cities in the Netherlands
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Recently carsharing has become perceived as an option to make cities more livable. Carsharing is a new mobility option benefitting users in different ways. Carsharing can offer a solution for individuals at risk of not being able to reach destinations, which hinders participation in society, also known as transport poverty. However, previous studies have shown that carsharing is being embraced by people who are already mobile. This study investigates how shared cars are distributed across Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht and how this distribution is related to demographic factors. This study also tests how mobility policy is related to the link between shared mobility and transport poverty. The study is done on the basis of CBS data at neighbourhood level and the number of shared cars offered by platforms. By linking these different data, it became clear what the relationship is between demographic and geographical variables on the one hand and the number of shared cars on the other. This study concludes that the number of shared cars in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht is related to the income of a neighbourhood. People in neighbourhoods with a higher income and employment rate have more shared cars at their disposal. This means that people with an increased risk of transport poverty have fewer shared cars at their disposal. And although Rotterdam and The Hague indicate that they want to use shared mobility against transport poverty, these two cities do not differ in their distribution compared to Amsterdam and Utrecht.