Cool Down the Town: Provision of Ecosystem Services in Urban Heat Island Effect Solutions
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In this literature review, 12 publications about the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in a moderate maritime (Cfb) climate were selected -out of a total 813 publications- to determine which Ecosystem Services (ESS) might be underexposed in green UHI solutions. For this, the solutions were categorized based on the type of green or blue infrastructure (GBI) mentioned in the respective study. From 42 preselected publications, most were about ‘building greens’, such as green roofs. Next, the mentioned ESS in 12 publications were classified using the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES). Further analysis of these publications showed that Regulating & Maintenance services are studied most and that cultural services appear to be the most difficult to quantify. The numerous ways in which green UHI solutions provide ESS are partially known, but not completely quantified in the analyzed studies. In general, most publications quantify the ESS ‘Regulation of temperature and humidity’, but do not provide a complete quantification of other mentioned ESS. It is recommended that -when implementing green solutions to create a more climate resistant and adaptable city-, all ESS of the solutions are qualified and quantified extensively. This helps to create a comprehensive and specific picture of the benefits provided by nature in the build environment.