The embeddedness of development interventions of Dutch private initiatives and their Indian partners
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Since the second half of the nineties the number of Dutch Private Initiatives (PIs) grew explosively. One can even speak of a new channel in Dutch development cooperation. However, few researches on PIs have been conducted. They mainly focused on the PIs themselves and the relation with their local partners in the South. This research goes a step further: it investigates how the development interventions of PIs are embedded in the receiving society. It focuses on PIs that are active in India. All these PIs and their partners have a strong basis for embeddedness, but no intervention is totally embedded. They are all capable of creating and implementing their development intervention, but their capacity is limited since they are small scale organisations. However, when a PI cooperates with an already existing Indian organisation, this local partner is more engaged in professionalization of their organisation, and thus has a higher capacity, than when a PI set up a their own Indian organisation. When one looks at local ownership, the PIs in this research have an influence on the development intervention, but their Indian partners decide what the intervention entails and then apply for funds of the PI. Especially Indian organisations with multiple sources of income are less dependent on the PI. Nevertheless, when there are many cultural differences between the Dutch PI and its Indian partner, the PI is more inclined to give suggestions to change the development intervention. This leads to less local ownership. T Almost all PIs and their Indian partners involve the staff and the beneficiaries in their interventions. This is at a low level of participation; they can only give suggestions. The government is not always involved and mainly at a low level (with some exceptions). Other development organisations are not involved or at the level of collaboration. It is striking to see that Indian partners of PIs that receive funds from Dutch development organisations involve more stakeholders. Finally, the development interventions of the PIs and their Indian partners are highly institutional and economic-geographic rooted. All organisations are registered and most interventions are in line with local policies. The socio-cultural rootedness is less developed. Not all beneficiaries receive personal attention; their mental needs are not met.