The Impact of Climate Variation and Change on Gender Dynamics from a Vulnerability and Adaptive Perspective
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The current thesis sets out to find the influence of Climate Variation and Change [CVC] on the gender dynamics, vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities of smallholder farmers in the Global South. The impact of CVC is explored by using a Systematic Literature Review [SLR]. This entails a comprehensive selection process, classification and inclusion criteria through which 56 relevant peer reviewed articles were selected and studied. Research niches are found in social dynamics of CVC impacts and the very regional research scope. The current SLR facilitates the research by showing a global, general and transparent overview on this subject. The relevant articles show that female and male smallholder cultivators have different levels of vulnerability and adaptation capacity in regard to CVC. CVC amplifies gender inequalities, enhances vulnerabilities and urges communities to become more resilient. Women are often lacking access to representation, finances, inheritance rights, information and knowledge. Furthermore, the research found that women cultivators in the Global South often lack power to influence important decision-making processes to adaptation strategies and other higher investments. Female cultivators also generally lack representations and involvement within policies, meetings and development strategy inputs. This all makes women more vulnerable in times of climatic stress. Gender subordination is found in all sectors of agricultural activities, and is often driven through social, cultural and institutional barriers. The findings show that CVC and gender are inseparable and mutually inclusive. The higher level of vulnerability of women seems to be linked to lack of access, assets and control over natural resources. There is an urgent need for women and previously marginalized groups to be included in decision-making processes and become more empowered. It is crucial to focus on all barriers smallholder farmers might face in CVC situations. Empowerment of women is the key to achieving more global food security and finding more resilient ways of battling CVC.