Collaboration in the Circular Economy in the Netherlands: A Proximity Approach
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The extraction of raw material is responsible for the majority of the global GHG emissions. Waste management is an important aspect of climate change mitigation. The current economic development model is a linear model, which used too much raw materials. This is unsustainable for the earth. An important solution to this problem is the implementation of a circular economy. In this paper, the hindering factors for a Circular Economy in the Netherlands are identified. For this research, the EUPRO database is used. The proximity dimensions and centrality measures are used to examine the collaborations in the Netherlands. A social network analysis and count regressions are carried out to measure the impact of these variables. In the Netherlands, organizations require collaborate with organizations that have higher geographical proximity, institutional proximity and cognitive proximity than is beneficial for the success of the collaboration. Thus, this paper provides empirical evidence for the proximity paradox. Organizations that are well-connected also have a negative influence on the success of the collaborations in the Netherlands. For these findings, policy recommendations are then considered.