The Nature of Maussollos’s Monarchy. The Three Faces of a Dynastic Karian Satrap
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This thesis analyses the nature of Maussollos’s monarchy by looking at his (self-)representation in epigraphy, architecture, coinage, and use of titulature vis-a-vis the concept of Hellenistic kingship. It shall be argued that he represented himself and was represented in three different ways – giving him three different ‘’faces’’. He represented himself as an exalted ruler concerning his private dedications and architecture, ever inching closer to deification, but not taking that final step. His deification was to be post mortem. Concerning diplomacy between him and the poleis, he adopted a realpolitik approach, allowing for much self-governance in return for accepting his authority. Maussollos strongly continued the dynastic image set up by his father Hekatomnos concerning the importance of Zeus Labraundos and his Sanctuary at Labraunda, turning the Sanctuary into the major Karian sanctuary. This dynastic parallel can also be seen concerning Hekatomnos’s and Maussollos’s burials, with both being buried as oikistes in terraced tombs, both the inner sanctums depicting Totenmahl-motifs and both being deified after death. Hekatomnos introduced coinage featuring Zeus Labraundos wielding a spear, representing spear-won land. Maussollos adopted this imagery and added Halikarnassian Apollo on the obverse depicting the locations of his two paradeisoi. As for titulature, the Hekatomnids in general eschewed using any which has led to confusion in the ancient sources, but the Hekatomnids were the satraps of Karia, ruling their native land on behalf of the Persian King. All in all, Maussollos portrayed many characteristics of Hellenistic kingship, though the interpretation and context of these characteristics varied.