Differences in Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviour of Turkish and Dutch Toddlers and the Role of Parenting
Dijk, M. van
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The present cross-country study examined differences in problem behaviour between Turkish and Dutch toddlers and the role of parenting. Evidence for the importance of parenting in toddlers’ problem behaviour has mainly been obtained by studies conducted in European-American individualistic societies. Much less is known regarding the importance of parenting for toddlers’ problem behaviour in collectivistic societies. Mothers of 175 Turkish toddlers (Mage = 62.89, SD = 10.29; 42.3% boys) and mothers of 977 Dutch toddlers (Mage = 61.85, SD = 8.63; 48.1% boys) filled out the CECPAQ regarding their parenting behaviour and the CBCL/1.5-5 regarding their toddlers’ behaviour. Turkish mothers reported higher levels of positive and negative discipline, and support than Dutch mothers. Turkish toddlers scored higher on both internalizing and externalizing behaviour than Dutch toddlers. Regarding toddlers’ internalizing behaviour, positive associations were found with negative discipline and stimulation. These associations did not differ between the Turkish and Dutch sample. Maternal support appeared to be positively related with toddlers’ internalizing behaviour in the Turkish sample, while in the Dutch sample this association was negative. Moreover, toddlers’ externalizing behaviour was positively related with negative discipline and negatively related with support. These associations were stronger in the Dutch sample. At last, although no correlations were found between positive discipline and toddlers’ behaviour, an interaction effect was found. This study indicates that there are differences between individualistic and collectivistic societies with regards to the relations between parenting behaviour of mothers and internalizing and externalizing behaviour of toddlers.