Associations of perceived parent-child and sibling relationship quality with social competence: Comparing Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch, and Turkish-Dutch early adolescents.
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Aim The aims of the present study were (a) to examine whether Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch, and Turkish-Dutch early adolescents differ in their parent-child and sibling relationship quality and social competence, (b) to compare the associations between parent-child and sibling relationship quality for Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch, and Turkish-Dutch early adolescents, and (c) to investigate whether cultural identity moderates the relationship between the quality of the parent-child and sibling relationship on social competence. Method Among 35 primary schools in the Netherlands, questionnaire data on parental support, parent-child negative interaction, sibling warmth and conflict, as well as social competence and cultural identity were collected from 964 Dutch (Mage = 11.31 years), 35 Moroccan-Dutch (Mage = 11.63 years), and 22 Turkish-Dutch (Mage = 11.41 years) early adolescents. Results Significant mean level differences were found between the three samples. Dutch early adolescents reported higher on social competence, while Moroccan-Dutch early adolescents reported higher on social competence as well as sibling warmth. Differences between the three ethnic groups in the patterns of associations were also found, supporting the cultural values model. This means that the influence of family relationships differs across the three ethnic groups. However, we did not find a moderating effect of cultural identity in the link between parent-child and sibling relationship quality on social competence. Conclusion This study shows that ethnic differences may exist in sibling relationship quality and in social competence, and in the impact of family relationships on social competence. These results are not influenced by the different levels of cultural identity, suggesting that the level of cultural identity does not influence the link between relationships in the family and early adolescent social competence.