Level of Parental Self-Efficacy when Raising Toddlers
Garderen, J.W. van
MetadataShow full item record
This study investigated whether levels of parental self-efficacy (PSE) following noncompliant child behavior were affected similarly by power bouts and single acts of noncompliance. In addition, it was investigated whether this effect was similar for fathers versus mothers. Previous research has found that PSE can depend on parental needs, which is based on the parental roles fathers and mothers tend to fulfill. However, few studies have investigated gender differences in PSE. Even fewer studies have investigated this difference in relation to power bouts and single acts of noncompliance. As gender differences in levels of PSE could lead to gender sensitive intervention strategies, this study is both of social and scientific relevance. It was hypothesized that mothers would experience higher levels of PSE when raising toddlers. In addition, it was hypothesized that fathers’ levels of PSE would decrease more significantly during power bouts compared to mothers’ levels of PSE. A total of 165 parents (140 mothers; 25 fathers) participated in this study by filling out an online survey. No evidence was found in support of both hypotheses, meaning that fathers and mothers do not significantly differ in their levels and development of PSE. As a result, there seems no need for gender sensitive intervention strategies. However, these results have to be interpreted with caution as this study suffers a number of limitations. Future research should address these limitations in order to extend the scope of this study and increase its reliability regarding implications for gender sensitive intervention strategies.