Niet-biologische kinderen: hemels of de hel? Wat is de ouderschapsbeleving van niet-biologische ouders?
Dommelen, M.M. van
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Families are indispensable in the lives of people (Hoppe, Fritsche, & Koranyi, 2017) . Households have changed in the last decades (Ribbens McCarty, Edwards, & Gillies, 2003; Williams, 2004). Besides traditional families consiting of a father, mother and child(ren) there are single-parent families, homoseksual families and compound families (Loozen, Pool, & Harmsen, 2014). The number of non-biological parents is growing (Guzzo, 2017; CBS, 2009a; Steenhof, 2007). Ribbens McCarthy et al., (2003) concluded that the parentrole of the non-biological parent is important for the relationship with the child(ren). Positive experiences about the parenthood contributes positively to the development of a child (Nelson, Kushlev, English, Dunn, & Lyubomirsky, 2013). The experience of parenthood is an important factor in raising a child (Gravesteijn, 2015; Pas, 2013; Weille, 2011). That triggers a research about the experience of the non-biological parents. Interviews are applied to examine how non-biological parents experience their parenthood. The non-biological parents interviewed in this research (n=15) are adoptive parents (n=6) and bonus parents (n=9). A snowball sample and a targeted sample are used. The respondents where leading during the interviews, the only determinate aspect was required to include factors, who influence the experience of parenthood, which are discussed in literature corresponding. The factors where social economic status, relationship, friendship, support, child factors, the relation with the child, values and standards, personality and career (Petterson, Gravesteijn, & Peschier, 2017; Bucx, 2011). As such interviews reflected the parenthood experience of the non-biological parents. The conclusion was that the parenthood has changed their lives. It influences their work, they do not make that long hours anymore and it is really important to have a stable job. It influences in the frequencies they see their friends: most of the respondents see them less often. Parenthood changed them as a person. They are more responsible and made their family their first priority. The difference between the adoption parents and the bonus parents is minimum. Bonus parents struggle with the role they have in the life of the child(ren). Because they do not want to give the impression that they are the (real) father or mother. Because of that, they take ‘a step back’ in parenthood. However, they feel affection for the child(ren). All the non-biological parents are indicating that parenthood improved their lives.