Biopsychosocial Profiles of People With and Without Chronic Somatic Symptoms: Association Between Variables of the Biopsychosocial Model of Pain and Pain severity
MetadataShow full item record
Objectives. With a focus on psychological flexibility, this study examined the association between variables of the Biopsychosocial model of pain (BMI, disease activity, sleep, physical activity and psychological flexibility) and pain severity and aimed to identify subgroups that can be distinguished from each other based on these variables. Methods. 334 Dutch participants aged between 18 and 75 (88.9% female) were included in analysis. Measurements of psychological flexibility (FIT-60), pain severity (RAND-36), physical activity (SQUASH), sleep (ISI), disease activity and body mass index (BMI) were used in hierarchical regression and cluster analyses. Results. Together, a significant association was found of pain with a combination of BMI, disease activity, sleep, physical activity and psychological flexibility. Four of the five independent variables (BMI, disease activity, sleep and physical activity) accounted for a significant percentage of the variance in pain, with small to medium effect sizes. Hierarchical cluster analysis yielded 3 profiles: Fit (n = 145), Adapted (n = 90), and Maladapted (n = 99). Discussion. This study did not find psychological flexibility to account for variation in pain, beyond that explained by other variables. However, together with four other biopsychosocial factors it showed significance for pain. Moreover, this study found three distinctive profiles that could be used to develop personalized treatment in common health care worldwide. The results provide a tentative suggestion that a combination of factors should be targeted in prevention or treatment of pain.