A One Health approach towards artificial insemination in cattle in Tanga, Tanzania
Jong, M.J.K. de
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Background: Due to the growing African population, the demand for nutrient-rich products of animal origin increases. The Tanzanian government has developed a strategy to transform the agricultural sector into a modern and highly productive sector and one of the objectives is to improve livestock production through upgrading of local breeds by means of artificial insemination (AI). Objectives: In light of this, one of the aims of this study was to evaluate the AI program in Tanga city. In addition, health status and working procedures of AI technicians were evaluated to identify risk factors of contracting a zoonosis or getting injured and to determine welfare issues to cattle. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was performed in Tanga city and surrounding area from May 2018 until June 2018. Both farmers and AI technicians were invited to participate. A multinomial regression analysis was performed Results: Predictors of adoption of AI are distance to city center, owning less cattle, mentioning less disadvantages of AI and less farming experience. The most important disadvantage mentioned most often was repeat breeding, which was also the reason for most farmers to stop using AI. There are some minor safety hazards to AI technicians but no risk factors could be determined due to the small sample size. No clear association could be found between symptoms of zoonotic infection and hygienic measures. Conclusion: The results from this study indicate that the AI program in Tanga is not very successful and most likely even decreases production due to the many reports of repeat breeding. Furthermore, accessibility of AI services is an obstacle for farmers to adopt AI and this needs improvement.