Risk assessment of engineered carbonaceous nanoparticles in the aquatic environment
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The emerging nano-industry and increasing use of manufactured nanoparticle-containing (consumer) products worldwide will ultimately lead to growing nanoparticle emissions into the environment. Since most nanoparticles have different properties than their larger counterparts and therefore, obviously, behave differently, these new materials require risk assessment to understand their impact on the environment. So far there has been minimal research on nanoparticle mobility, reactivity and ecotoxicity. This review presents literature which demonstrates that carbon nanoparticles could have effects on (aquatic) organisms under environmental conditions, though mostly at high exposure levels. Also, it is found that the behavior of carbon nanoparticles in aqueous media is very complex, depending on a lot of particle and medium conditions. All together, these elements make risk assessment of (carbon) nanoparticles a real challenge in the future. The objectives of this thesis are to introduce key aspects of the behavior and fate of carbonaceous nanoparticles in the aquatic environment and (future) risk assessment. Summarized are ecotoxicity testing results up until this moment, challenges in toxicity testing and recommendations concerning the needs in future testing and improving universal nanoparticle risk assessment in general.