Nonverbale vaardigheden bij depressieve adolescenten
Kraker, T. de
MetadataShow full item record
Backgrounds: Depression has been linked to social skills deficits in adults and children, yet empirical studies in clinically depressed adolescents are rare. The present study focuses on the possible relationship between gender specific nonverbal behaviours and depression in adolescence. For this purpose clinical depressed adolescent and non-depressed adolescents were compared, with attention for possible gender specific effects. Within the depressed group also the correlation between the number of depressive symptoms and nonverbal behaviour was examined. Finally it is examined whether female adult conversation partners responded differently towards clinical depressed adolescents as compared to non-depressed adolescents. Methods: This study consisted of 10 minutes of observations of 29 13-20 year old female and male depressed adolescents, 29 non-depressed adolescents (matched on age, gender and educational level) and their female adult conversation partners. Several non-verbal negative en positive (other oriented) behaviours were examined. Negative behaviour consisted of behaviours that violate display rules and the positive display of other oriented behaviour was measured by means of the amount of gazing, smiling, backchanneling, emotional involvement and mirroring. Results: Clinically depressed adolescents showed less emotional involvement and mirroring the position of the upper body and more negative behaviours than non-depressed adolescent do. Some of these effects showed an interaction with sex. Depressed girls showed less other-oriented behaviours (smiling, backchanneling), whereas depressed boys showed more other-oriented behaviours as compared to their non-depressed counterparts. Both depressed girls and boys showed more negative behaviours than controls, but this effect was stronger for boys. A negative correlation was found between the degree of depression and mirroring the position of the lower body and emotional involvement. Surprisingly the reversed was found for backchanneling. Finally, as expected, the conversation partner gazed longer and showed more emotional involvement towards a non-depressed adolescent than a depressed adolescent. Conclusions: The clinically depressed adolescents showed more negative behaviour and less other oriented behaviour than non-depressed adolescent, and received less positive behaviour from the adult partner in conversation, as predicted by the social skills deficit model. Also a correlation was found between the severity of depression and some of these behaviours. It should be further examined if similar patterns exist in peer communication in order to find out the possible consequences for developing relationships.