The rise of last-mile food delivery platforms in the city
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Globally, the food delivery market is a rapidly growing phenomenon which is accelerated by the Covid-19 pandemic. International, national and local market players in terms of food delivery platforms see the revenue opportunities and make their appearances in the city. The services of these platforms are characterised by convivence, offering smartphone apps, wide range of products, and home delivery. The latter service is performed with various logistic network models that contain specific features, which reshape the city. The reforms of the city due to food delivery platforms are urban challenges additional to the existing challenges of urbanization and climate change. Therefore, the research question is raised: ‘What do last-mile food delivery platforms mean for the city and urban planning?’. This question is answered through a case study of Amsterdam. This research showed that ordering practices of the citizen-consumer and the municipal policy gap regarding the last-mile of food delivery platforms, raises tensions in terms of socio-spatial and socio-material in the city. This research suggests to include the last-mile of food delivery in city logistic policy. In cooperation with both large and smaller stakeholders, a long-term vision needs to be adopted to maintain and increase liveability and sustainability.