Prospects for HT-ATES in the Dutch energy system - Potentials, applications and business cases of High-Temperature Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage
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The main heat sources of numerous district heating networks are unable to produce all required heat, due to fluctuating demand throughout seasons. Consequently, inefficient natural gas-fired boilers are often used to compensate for peak heat demand, while there is a surplus capacity or even surplus production of heat during summer. Seasonal thermal energy storage can store heat from the main heat sources during summer and produce it at peak demand in winter, thereby increasing the energy efficiency of district heating networks. A promising technology to facilitate seasonal thermal energy storage is high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage(HT-ATES). After technical issues led to the shutdown of most HT-ATES projects in the 1980s, there currently is renewed interest for HT-ATES as proven solutions have since become available to the technical issues. To facilitate its implementation, this thesis aims to develop a methodology for HT-ATES potentials assessment and to identify the conditions, drivers and barriers for HT-ATES implementation. Through literature research and brainstorm sessions with experts, the parameters relevant for HT-ATES potentials were mapped and classified. Parameter values, formulas and boundaries were proposed and integrated in a methodology to design frameworks for the assessment of the theoretical, technical and market potential of HT-ATES. The market potential assessment framework was applied to two quantitative case studies to illustrate the application of the frameworks and develop quantitative insights in conditions, drivers and barriers for implementation. A market potential of 14 kt of avoided CO2-emissions was found in Groningen; no market potential was found in the Rotterdam case study. The potential assessment frameworks provide a step-by-step methodology that can be used in future research to fully quantify HT-ATES potentials. The case studies revealed promising prospects for HT-ATES in combination with geothermal heat and exposed shortcomings and weaknesses in the policy package in the Netherlands.