Climate change under Occupation: Adaptations and resistance to a changing landscape in a pseudo- sovereign state (West Bank, Palestine)
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This thesis describes the interacting nature of the physical and social effects of climate change and the Israeli occupation, and how the local context affects NGO project implementations that are necessary as a result of the changing climate and stagnant political situation. The authoritative issues on the ground, which are a result of the 1995 Oslo Accords, affect the vulnerability and resilience of Palestinian communities and institutions. On top of the fact that the occupation is indirectly and directly exacerbating the physical effects of climate change, including drought and desertification, it is also hindering the abilities that NGOs have in response to them. The three NGOs that are described in this thesis deal with different aspects of the geopolitical situation or the changing environment. They have different motivations, but encounter the same issues when implementing their projects, which are the threat of demolition and acquiring permits, as well as the problem of land confiscation and access to land. Furthermore, the projects act as mitigation to the long term effects of climate change while addressing immediate issues brought upon by the occupation, while incorporating ideas of social capital. Although they incorporate this idea of social capital into their projects, they do not necessarily incorporate it into their own organization’s practices.