Assessing the monetary value and impacts of regulating- and reserve power provision by electric vehicles in Dutch urban areas.
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Recent years have shown a significant increase in electric vehicles (EVs), which could make a significant contribution to meeting European, national and municipal energy and climate goals. However, EVs are reported to be parked for roughly 90% of the time, which makes them available for other purposes. One of these purposes is the provision of regulating- and reserve power (RRP) to the transmission system operator, a concept that can be ranked under vehicle-to-grid (V2G). The aim of this research is to determine the potential value that EVs could generate by providing RRP and identify important factors surrounding the provision of RRP. Since several large cities within the Netherlands have ambitious implementation plans for EVs the focus lies on urban areas. This research consists of three parts. Firstly, a survey was conducted on the regulation and operation surrounding the Dutch electricity infrastructure in relation to RRP provision. It was found that these were generally favorable for RRP provision by EVs. Secondly, the characteristics of the Dutch EV fleet and its users were assessed to indicate the potential for RRP provision, which led to the identification of the resident-commuter (RC)-, resident and commuter user type. Thirdly, a model was developed to simulate four commonly sold EVs in an urban area in the Netherlands under a baseline charging- and RRP dispatch scheme for one year. The results identified profit, battery throughput and state-of-charge distribution as important indicators for the performance of RRP provision. While loads on the infrastructure are impacted as well, these experience little effect under the modeled EV fleet. Depending on EV- and user type the provision of RRP resulted in net benefits in the range between €118 and €632. This is accompanied by increased battery throughput, deeper discharging of the battery and lower SOC distributions. However, the latter has little effect on the assumed trip requirements of the EV user. Subsequently, an assessment was made on the sensitivity of the results for changes in user characteristics and fleet sizes, which offered both favorable prospects and limitations. In conclusion it can be stated that the provision of RRP by EVs in the Netherlands shows promising potential and further research should be pursued.