Migration As a Tool For Empowerment? The Effects of Migration And Return on The Empowerment Levels of Filipina International Migrant Workers
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The feminization of migration is a worldwide phenomenon. More often women decide to work abroad in order to provide for their families and themselves. However, within the current literature the difference in experiences between female and male migrants workers tend to be overlooked. A gendered lens is not incorporated within the international labour migrant literature. Furthermore, the effects of return migration on the migrant worker is also often overlooked within the academic literature. This thesis aimed to bridge these gaps within the international labour migration literature. Hence, this thesis has incorporated the concept of empowerment to analyze the effect of international migration on female migrant workers. Furthermore the effects of return migration are also analyzed. The empowerment concept is divided in economic empowerment, social empowerment and political empowerment. In addition empowerment is analyzed on the individual level, in close relationship with others and on the collective level. For the research the Philippines has been the area of choice, due to their high levels of international labour migrants and especially female migrant workers.