The Influence of Word Frequency on Accuracy and Latency in a Newly Developed Dutch Naming Test in Healthy Adult Participants
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Title: The influence of word frequency on accuracy and latency in a newly developed Dutch naming test in healthy adult participants. Background: Speech production, including word retrieval, is a complex process. Low frequent words tend to be more difficult to retrieve and produce than high frequent words; the so-called word frequency effect. Difficulty in finding or producing words is a common problem for many people with aphasia following stroke. The Boston Naming Test is the most commonly used test to detect naming difficulties resulting from stroke. Due to poor psychometric properties, a lack of adequate standardization and norms, a new naming test, arranged by word frequency consistent with the Dutch language, is needed. Aim and research question: To develop a picture-naming test arranged by word frequency according to the Dutch language, aiming at the following research question: To what extent does word frequency influence accuracy and latency in a newly developed Dutch naming test in healthy, adult participants? Method: A total of 59 healthy Dutch adults took part in the study, divided into two age groups (18-30 and 50-75 years old). The test consists of 60 black and white line drawings: 20 high, 20 mid, and 20 low frequent words. Accuracy and latency were measured. Results: A frequency effect was present among healthy Dutch adults; latency increased significantly when word frequency decreased. Young adults were significantly faster than older adults on all three frequency levels. The number of incorrect responses increased significantly as word frequency decreased. Conclusion: In this newly developed Dutch naming test accuracy and latency were influenced by word frequency in healthy, adult participants. Recommendations: It is suggested that people with aphasia should be examined with this test to complete the standardization of this test.