De invloed van gezinscohesie en ouderlijke kritiek op de ontwikkeling van symptomen van een paniekstoornis bij adolescenten
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The aim of this longitudinal study is to determine whether by adolescents experienced family cohesion and parental criticism have an influence on the development of self-reported symptoms of panic disorder [PD] in adolescents. And if gender is a moderator. Participants were 288 students with an age range from 10 to 14 years old, both boys (n = 142) and girls (n = 146), from the eighth grade of elementary schools (n = 112) and the first (n = 125) and second grade (n = 51) of high schools. Data was collected though a self-report questionnaire. Participants answered this questionnaire twice, approximately five months apart. Hierarchical regression analyzes showed no significant influence from family cohesion and parental criticism on the development of panic symptoms in adolescents. Gender does not appear to be a moderating factor. There is a development of the adolescents experienced symptoms of PD. More research is needed on the influence of family cohesion and parental criticism on both the development of symptoms of PD and other anxiety disorders. Also, for future research it is recommended to measure the symptoms of PD on more occasions throughout adolescence, to gain more information about the development of PD.