Leisure and Weather at Rotterdam
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This study was designed to discover people’s daily leisure behavior respond to different weather conditions, and also if the transportations and individual specific characteristics matters regarding to the leisure issues. The factors taken into considerations are based on the results of previous studies that are related to leisure activities and temperature, transport and individual characteristics. However, until now, as temperatures and transportation issues were more focused, the other factors such as winds and individual characteristics were less been paid attentions to. In contrast, this study aims to explore a more comprehensive understanding, including possible factors in those three aspects. The research was carried out among the residents in Rotterdam. The case of Rotterdam yielded a considerable amount of questionnaires regarding to people’s daily travelling among the city. 1953 respondents have ever participated in the survey program and 13752 records have been collected. For each trips, the related variables concerning the weather conditions, transportations, individual characteristics, geographic coordinators were recorded. Subsequently, statistical analysis and clustering effects have been analyzed by using different statistical or geographical information analyzing methods, in order to answer the research questions. The results indicated that, generally, the people in Rotterdam prefer a warm and no precipitation day with a wind speed around 2~4 m/s to spend their leisure time. And more specifically, temperature has positive effects to the shopping, like most of the previous studies. It also have negative effects to physical activities. No precipitations is preferred for most of the people, and also there is a ‘threshold’ for the wind speed, which is the most suitable wind speed for leisure activities. A few dominant places for leisure activities has been found, i.e. the Centrum, Vlaardingen, and Spijkenis. However, the attractions of those places contribute more to make those places to be famous for leisure, instead of the environment or municipal transport. Particularly, depends on different transportations, how it matters for people’s leisure activities varies. Temperature will change people’s choices for cycling and walking but do not change the destinations. Meanwhile precipitations have less influences to the transportations, but do change the destinations. Moreover, people who using public transport or private cars are more likely to be unstoppable under adverse weather. In addition, a few correlations has been found between leisure activities and the individual characteristics. It indicated that to some extent the individual characteristics matters. The study therefore advocates a more comprehensive understanding about how Dutch residents acting confront different weather. And as the results could largely depends on the research area, more studies should conducted at the other cities or countries. Quantitative analysis can give answers to research questions, but the understanding is not deep. Future studies should more focused on the individual characteristics. And policy makers should take more care about the weather exposed travelling. All these may result in fairly opportunities for all residents to enjoy a high quality leisure time.