Unity Makes Strength: An evaluation of 25 years history & philosophy of science in Utrecht, 1988 - 2013
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History and philosophy of science are two different yet commonly associated academic disciplines, grouped together in joint faculties and institutes in many places around the world as well as on the highest, international level of organisation. A similar fusion took place at the University of Utrecht in 1988. In this study, I demonstrate that this fusion, which was mainly driven by financial considerations, has not resulted in closer intellectual integration, in spite of the shared institutional structure or a shared physical working space. With three historical reconstructions, I suggest that the disciplinary purposes of research in the history of science, biohistory and foundations of physics were very different at the onset of unification. Additionally, their only shared purpose they have had from the beginning, science-education and reflexive general education for prospective scientists, has turned out inadequate as a catalyst for collaborative creation of professional knowledge. For that reason, I propose innovation studies as a new future partner-discipline for professional history of science.