From stem cells to neurons: epigenetic mechanisms governing neurogenesis.
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The development of one of the most important systems of the human body, the nervous system, is definitely a very complicated and less understood process. The nervous system contains a wide range of different cell types, all of which originated from the ectoderm of the early embryo during development. The neural stem cells or else called neural progenitor cells are controlled by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals in order to produce a stunning diversity of neural cells at the right time and place. The fate of each stem cell can be defined among others, by the epigenetic landscape of its DNA. Epigenetics control gene expression from the early stages of development. From the embryonic stem cell stage, to the neural stem cell stage to the terminally differentiated neuron. In this review, we will take a closer look at the complicated and precise epigenetic mechanisms governing neural development.