Making Brain Training Effective- A Review of Training Features that lead to Durable Performance Increases Beyond the Training Context
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In almost all fields of experimental psychology, enhancements in performance have been achieved after extensive training. These improvements however, are classically confined to the context in which the learning takes place. Considering the relevance of real-world training tasks or rehabilitation paradigms, this context specificity is a problem for the aim of general learning. Nevertheless, recent studies employing video games and working memory tasks as training have produced learning effects that have generalized to previously untrained tasks. This review discusses the mechanisms and essential features that cause this transferability with the aim to provide guidance for future training paradigms. By identifying the characteristics responsible for the success of these regimens, like including tasks that span multiple modalities, minimizing the use of specific strategies and attaining maximal participant engagement, recommendations can be made about implementing these features to achieve a maximal learning effect, increasing the effectiveness of the training paradigm.