Prediction of Child Problem Behaviors in Kindergarten: The Moderating Role of Child’s Anger in the Effects of Maternal Ignoring of Misbehavior and Maternal Overprotection on Child Problem Behavior.
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Abstract The additive and interactive relations of parenting (maternal ignoring of misbehavior and maternal overprotection) and child temperament (anger) to children’s internalizing and externalizing problem behavior were examined in an 11-months longitudinal study of 179 children (3 ─7 years of which 51 percent girls, 45 percent boys, and 4 percent missing data) from Utrecht, Netherlands. At the screening, demographic variables were measured and mothers rated child temperament. At wave 1 and 2, mothers self-reported on parenting behaviors and mothers also rated children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted for the dependent variables at T2 by using the variables at T1 as predictors. The main effect of both maternal ignoring of misbehavior and maternal overprotection did not predict internalizing and externalizing child problem behavior. Only the main effect of children’s anger prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problem behavior. The longitudinal relationship between the parenting behaviors maternal ignoring of misbehavior and maternal overprotection, and child problem behavior was not moderated by children’s anger. The above results suggest that: a) children with high levels of anger were not more affected by maternal ignoring of misbehavior and maternal overprotection than children with lower levels of anger and b) children with high levels of anger showed more internalizing problem behavior later in development.